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Few Useful Websites related to Cranial Nerves

1. Henry Gray (1821-1865). Anatomy of the Human Body has a section on cranial nerve, which is available at http://www.bartleby.com/107/195.html. This useful classic, which takes one back 'down the memory lane' is
an offshoot whose path is "Anatomy of the Human Body > IX. Neurology > 5. The Cranial Nerves".

Instant Anatomy is an online version of the popular handbook and CD on Anatomy. The cranial nerves are featured at http://www.instantanatomy.net/headneck/nerves/cranial.html. Commencing with Classification, functional overview, the material courses through with Classification by its sensory / motor status, Patterns from brain to exit from skull, Ganglia classification, Specific cranial nerves and brain stem.

From the Yale University School of Medicine, at http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/cnerves/ , a spellbinding and stylish educative material on Cranial Nerves is available. The material created by a team comprising of Scott Hines, Patrick J. Lynch, William B. Stewart, and C. Carl Jaffe is also available from http://info.med.yale.edu/caim/cnerves/contents.html. The cranial nerves are depicted graphically and comprehensively; for instance the section on vagus comprises of 24 handy pages of useful information. Besides gross anatomy & imaging references are also available.

4. A Cranial Nerve Summary is available from the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland at http://rad.usuhs.mil/rad/anatomy/neuro/cranial_nerves.html. Authored by James G. Smirniotopoulos, M.D. Professor of Radiology and Neurology and Chairman, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences handy material on cranial nerves is available at http://rad.usuhs.mil/cranial_nerves/timrad.html.

Loyola University Cranial Nerve Review at http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/mainframe.htm is a exposition on the cranial nerve and its bony (exocranial and endocranial) relationship. The material is authored by Thackery Gray. Ph.D, Professor, Dept. Cell Biology,Neurobiology & Anatomy and is yet another classic from Lumen : a valuable online educative medical portal from Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. This site displays the true perspective of cranial nerves within the bony skull, vividly depicting the foramina and the branches of the cranial nerves. Sections on tables, photos of all cranial nerves, and branches are all featured in this site.

6. Focusing specifically on the Neuroanatomy of the 5th Cranial Nerve a website is presented by UCLA Healthcare Pharmacology School of Dentistry. This website from the University of California, is available at http://www.basicdesignstudio.com/ucla/pharm/anatomy/v1.htm. There are graphical descriptions with important features of maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the 5th cranial nerve neuroanatomy.

Cranial Nerve Review is a collection of educative material on cranial nerves at http://www.medsch.wisc.edu/anatomy/cn/cn.htm. Hosted by Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin Medical School, there are four sections that takes in Cranial Nerve Review Table (available at http://www.medsch.wisc.edu/anatomy/cn/cntable.htm), Cranial Nerve Review Diagrams (available at http://www.medsch.wisc.edu/anatomy/cn/cndiag.htm), Cranial Nerve Review Exercises (Java) and Cranial Nerve Review Exercises (Shockwave).

8. Cranial Nerve Review is offered from University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences http://anatomy.uams.edu/HTMLpages/anatomyhtml/reviewcranialnn.html. The material on each cranial nerve is tabulated by Nerve / Source / Branches / Motor / Sensory and Notes. Available within the tables is information on the bony opening in the cranial cavity through which it exits, its general course and branches, additional openings if any in bone, its status (whether it is somatic or visceral, motor or sensory, general or special, and if it carries pre- or post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers).

Clinical Presentation of Neurosurgical Disease is a feature focusing on clinical examination of cranial nerves. Available at http://uscneurosurgery.com/office/presentation/examination/cranial%20nerve%20exam.htm, the examination focuses on clinical correlates such as smell, pupils, accommodation, corneal reflex, facial sensation, ophthalmoscope etc to name a few.

Andre Leblanc Cranial Nerves is available at http://www.cranial-nerves.com/posters/main.htm. This site offers information on all the versions of André Leblanc's posters and artworks. The posters includes Cranial Nerves, Trigeminal (V) and Facial nerves (VII), Cerebrum and the Cranial Nerves, Optic Pathways and Innervation of Ocular Muscles, The Nerves of the Orbit, Vestibulo-Cochlear Pathways, Internal Ear, Organs of Hearing and Balance, Cavities of the Ear.


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