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Few Useful Special MRI Applications

1. Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging is available at http://ej.rsna.org/ej3/0095-98.fin/index.htm . Authored by Stadnik, Luypaert, Jager & Osteaux from the AZ VUB Radiology Department, Brussels, Belgium, the material covers a wide range of sections including Fick's Law, Typical Diffusion-weighted Sequence, Diffusion-weighted images and Diffusion maps and the various clinical applications.

2. Diffusion Imaging
is an excellent review by Mathias Hoehn, from Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne, Germany. Available at http://www.ujf-grenoble.fr/ismrm/Diffusion/diffusion_outline.htm this important topic is dealt under several sections including Historical Outline, Theory, Artefacts and Corrections, Free and Restricted diffusion, basics of Anisotropy, Incorporation of Diffusion Weighting into Imaging Sequences and Applications to Biomedical Research

Diffusion MRI at http://www.irc.chmcc.org/Research_Areas/brain/diffusion.htm is a brief treatise focusing on principles of Diffusion MRI and Diffusion Tensor MRI. In addition the site focuses on projects such as Age Differences in the Normal Pediatric Population and Differences in White Matter Architecture between Musicians and Non-Musicians.

4. Breast MRI Web Site is available at http://www.mrsc.ucsf.edu/breast/ from the University of California at San Francisco. The site created by Ellen Schwerin and maintained by Emily Heumann, focuses on information and resources on breast MRI. The educative material is divided into distinct sections covering Examination, Contrast Agent, Cost issues, Consent and Implants. Besides there are Pict7ures and links to Breast Cancer Web Sites.

5. Breast MRI from University of Wisconsin Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin focuses on detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Available at http://www.radiology.wisc.edu/staff/body/kelcz/ the site compares detection of breast malignancy using mammography, ultrasound and MRI. Other absorbing sections include Cases, Research and a section on "Final Take Home Points about Breast MRI".

6. Practical Lessons in Breast MRI
is authored by Roberts CC, Le-Petross HT, Karstaedt PJ, Liu PT and is available at http://bubbasoft.org/Breast_MRI/index.htm. The educative material comprises of sections that covers Breast Cancer Protocols, implant protocols, interpretation and cases. Within these sections are useful information on Equipment, Technical Parameters, Technical Notes as well as MRI Breast Lexicon. The importance of Enhancement and Enhancement Curves. Unusual Appearances of Benign and Malignant Disease on Breast MRI is another educative material compiled by the same group of authors. Available at http://bubbasoft.org/Unusual_Breast_MR/index.htm , the material essentially comprises of 15 illustrative cases with informative text.

7. BI-RADSŪ Atlas
is an useful compendium from the American College of Radiology available at http://www.acr.org/departments/stand_accred/birads-a.html . The atlas on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Atlas is essentially the result of a collaborative effort by important agencies such as American College of Radiology, National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, the American Medical Association, the American College of Surgeons, and the College of American Pathologists. This comprehensive guide provides an insight into standarized breast imaging terminology, report organization, assessment structure and a classification system for mammography, ultrasound and MRI of the breast.

8. Standardized Guidelines for Reporting of Musculoskeletal Imaging Studies from the UCLA Department of Radiological Sciences highlights the importance of optimal reporting of lesions in common Musculoskeletal Exams. Authored by Lawrence Yao, MD, Amilcare Gentili, MD, Los Angeles, California, this illustrative description is available at http://www.radsci.ucla.edu:8000/ms/y1/ . It comprises of separate sections on Post Arthroplasty Radiographs of the Hip, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Shoulder.

9. 3D Brachial Plexus MRI/MRA Image Gallery is a specialised site created by Dave Nelson and Ray Guerrero of the UCLA Radiology Media Center. Available at http://www.tosinfo.com/mri/images/img_gallery.html , the site focuses on labeled images of a person diagnosed with bilateral Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS). Typical cases with downloadable videos are also available at the site.

10. A Fetal MRI Compendium and Atlas is available from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, at http://bidmc.harvard.edu/content/bidmc/departments/radiology/files/fetalatlas/atlas.html. This illustrative primer and atlas deals with separate section on Head and Neck, Brain, Face, Spine, Chest, Abdomen, Genitourinary, Extremities, Multiple gestations, Maternal anatomy and physiology, placenta and fetal membranes. The material has been created by a team comprising of Deborah Levine, MD, Annemarie Stroustrup Smith, Larry Barbaras Anitha Gonsalves and Mark S. Frank MD. A useful set of appendices is available that discusses important issues such as a) Practical comments: Prior to fetal MRI b) Image Quality c) Artifacts , d) MR safety and informed consent and e) Fast MR imaging techniques.

Dr IK Indrajit MD DNB

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